Glossary

General terms

  • Bio-inspired computing - the use of computers to model the living phenomena, and simultaneously the study of life to improve the usage of computers. Biologically inspired computing is a major subset of natural computation.

  • Evolutionary computing - ...

  • Artificial intelligence (AI) - the term "artificial intelligence" is applied when a machine mimics "cognitive" functions that humans associate with other human minds, such as "learning" and "problem solving".

  • Machine Learning - a method of data analysis that automates analytical model building. Using algorithms that iteratively learn from data, machine learning allows computers to find hidden insights without being explicitly programmed where to look. [http://artificialbrain.xyz/deep-learning-from-a-to-z/]

  • Data mining - ...

  • Artifical Life - mimics life; ...

Technical terms

  • ANN, Artificial Neural Network - mimics the brain; ...

  • RNN, Recurring Neural Network - [https://ayearofai.com/rohan-lenny-3-recurrent-neural-networks-10300100899b]

  • CNN, Convolutional Neural Network - ...

  • Genetic algorithm - mimics evolution; a population of candidate solutions to an optimization problem (called individuals) is evolved toward better solutions through random and controlled mutations.

  • Genetic programming - mimics evolution; a technique whereby computer programs are encoded as a set of genes that are then modified (evolved) using an evolutionary algorithm (often a genetic algorithm).

  • Cellular Automaton - mimics evolution; ...

  • Fractals - ...

Obscure technical terms

  • t-SNE - a nonlinear dimensionality reduction technique that is particularly well-suited for embedding high-dimensional data into a space of two or three dimensions, which can then be visualized in a scatter plot. Specifically, it models each high-dimensional object by a two- or three-dimensional point in such a way that similar objects are modeled by nearby points and dissimilar objects are modeled by distant points.

  • Swarm programming - mimics life; ...

  • Emergent Systems - mimic hives; ...

  • Artificial Immune System - mimics the immune system; ...

  • Lindenmayer Systems - mimic plant structures; ...

  • Membrane computers / P-Systems - mimic the intra-membrane molecular processes in the living cell; ...

  • Excitable media - mimics phenomenons like forest fires; ...

  • Sensor networks - mimic the sensory organs; ...

  • Rule-based Machine Learning - mimics cognition and evolution; ...

  • Machine Learning Model - ...

  • Reinforcement Learning - ...

  • Natural Language Processing - ...

  • Biodegradability Prediction - ...

  • Deep Learning - ...

  • Dimensionality Reduction - ...

  • Simple Linear Regression - ...

  • Multiple Linear Regression / Backward Elimination - ...

  • Polynomial Regression - ...

  • Support Vector Regression (SVR) - ...

  • Decision Tree Regression - ...

  • Random Forest Regression - ...

  • Logistic Regression - ...

  • K-Nearest Neighbor - ...

  • Hierarchical temporal memory (HTM) (Jeff Hawkins and Dileep George, Numenta, Inc) - an unsupervised to semi-supervised online machine learning model that models some of the structural and algorithmic properties of the neocortex.

  • R-tree - tree data structures used for spatial access methods, i.e., for indexing multi-dimensional information such as geographical coordinates, rectangles or polygons.

Wikipedia - Glossary of artificial intelligence
wildml - DEEP LEARNING GLOSSARY
Natural Language Processing Key Terms, Explained